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In this talk I will present my recent work on factorization and transverse phase-space parton distributions. I will start with a discussion on physical conditions needed to define impact-parameter dependent cross section in quantum field theory. Then, I will give a factorization formula for the impact-parameter dependent cross section for inclusive hard processes with only colorless final-state products in hadron and nuclear collisions. It is valid for all pp, pA and AA collisions. By modelling large nuclei, the factorization formula confirms the cross section in the Glauber model for hard processes in AA collisions. In pp collisions, it opens up the avenue to measure transverse quantum phase-space parton distributions in the proton. A potential violation of the physical conditions for defining the impact-parameter dependent cross section in pp collisions by the LHC experiments will also be discussed.